The end of 2011 is upon us, but changes have already begun for me. I started a new job last week! I’m now Reference Archivist at the National Anthropological Archives, which is where I’ve been volunteering since September 2010. This experience should give me more ideas of things to write about, but recently my attention has been focused more at Hack Library School (we’re currently looking for more writers, so I encourage you to apply!).
I’m just going to come out and say it — while I love history, I kind of hate history books. I can never finish them, though I try multiple times. Battle Cry of Freedom has been attempted at least three times, but for some reason I always fall asleep. This is unfortunate because it’s rather difficult to develop my history interest if I can’t bring myself to read books on history.
Every now and then, though, I discover a great history book that renews my interest. Way back in high school, it was Howard Zinn’s A People’s History of the United States. In college, it was Strangers from a Different Shore by Ronald Takaki. A year ago, it was Brad Gooch’s biography of Flannery O’Connor.
More recently, I finished The Warmth of Other Suns. It was amazing. I couldn’t put it down, and never once did I fall asleep. The author’s methodology is rooted in oral history, and the narrative she writes is so well developed that it doesn’t feel like I’m reading history. I would really love if more history books felt that way — like stories instead of facts, because that’s how I think of history.
Do you have recommendations for history books that don’t feel like history books?
A huge pet peeve of mine is when people use the terms digitization and digital preservation interchangeably, so I thought I’d explain the differences. If you only remember one thing from this post, it should be that digitization IS NOT digital preservation.
Digitization is the reformatting of analog materials to a digital format. For example, scanning a photograph and saving it as a jpg file is digitization. Scanning a page from a diary and saving it as a pdf is digitization. Digitization does not always occur for the purpose of preservation. Materials are digitized for a variety of reasons, such as to provide access to people in different geographical areas, to provide simultaneous access to the same unique content, to provide access to material that’s too fragile to handle often, or to create a copy for a researcher.
Digital preservation is ensuring the long-term access of digital materials over time, including both analog materials that have been digitized and born-digital materials. Born-digital materials are items that were originally created in a digital format (e.g. Microsoft Word document, email, Photoshop file). For analog materials, digital preservation can only occur after digitization.
Think about computer hardware, software, and file formats that are now obsolete. Can you still open that content? Is it still functional? That’s what digital preservation is about — making sure that you still can, and making sure that all those digital materials you’re creating today are still accessible in 5, 10, 50 years! There are numerous strategies for digital preservation — to name a few, migration, emulation, and refreshing — but no one’s got it all figured out (yet).
It’s important to distinguish between these two concepts because digitization does not encompass born-digital materials, and you’d be leaving out a huge amount of material if digital preservation only concerned analog materials that were digitized. Additionally, digitization is not focused on providing long-term access to digital materials.
Does that make sense?
This post is inspired by how many library school students and librarians have no real idea of what archivists do and why — a description of archives doesn’t seem to make it to any intro classes. Below is a brief overview.
What are archival records?
A record is information that has been stored in a fixed form, which includes paper, photographs, film and sound recordings, and electronic files. Important to a record is its content, structure, and context. Content is all the information that is contained in the record. The content of a record is fixed, so that it can be reviewed again – its stability is what makes a record significant to memory. A record’s structure is the physical form it is contained in and the organization of its content. Context is all the conditions that surround a record’s creation, storage, or use – and context is very important to archivists.
We create and use countless records in our everyday life, but not every record is considered archival. Archives simply cannot keep all records ever created, so one of the main responsibilities of an archivist is to determine if a record should be preserved because it has enduring value.
Archival records document the activities of its creator – whether that’s an individual, group, or organization – and these records serve as direct evidence of the creator’s activities. Because the content of the records serve as evidence of these activities, they have enduring value. Archival records serve a purpose other than the one they were originally created for.
What exactly is an archives?
The term “archives” can refer to the archival materials themselves, organizations that collect archival materials, the archival profession, and a building that houses archival materials. The word “archives” is and can be used interchangeably in reference to any of those definitions.
What are the main responsibilities of an archivist?
An archivist’s work involves many different parts of managing an archival collection. Some archivists perform all of the responsibilities described below, but archivists in larger institutions may focus on just a few of these.
Appraisal and Acquisition
I mentioned appraisal earlier – archivists appraise records to determine if they have enduring value and should be preserved in the long-term. While archival records may be worth money, archival appraisal is not concerned with monetary value but the value of the record’s content. Appraisal is subjective because part of the selection process looks to see if records fit within the archives’ mission and purpose. If an archivist decides that a collection should be part of the archival institution, the materials are acquired and transferred through a process called accessioning.
Archivists arrange the archival materials in order to provide access to researchers. In arrangement, archivists intellectually organize the records and make sure the physical organization reflects that intellectual arrangement. Especially important to archivists during this process are the concepts of provenance and original order. Provenance is the relationship between a record and the individuals or organizations who created, maintained, or used it. To maintain provenance, archivists try to ensure that records are kept according to their origin and not mixed in with other collections. Original order is keeping records in the same order in which the creator arranged them. Maintaining both provenance and original order is necessary to preserve the records’ context. This context can be crucial to a researcher, which is why archivists try so hard to maintain it.
In the description process, archivists try to create an accurate representation of an archival collection’s content and how it is arranged physically. In addition, archivists provide information about the creator and the context of the records’ creation. This description information is generally brought together in a finding aid, which serves as a researcher’s guide to the collection. In most archival collections, materials are not described at the item level.
Archivists also facilitate the physical preservation of archival records. This often happens during the arrangement process. For example, to ensure paper records don’t deteriorate, they are stored in acid-free folders and placed in acid-free boxes. Metal items such as paper clips and staples may be removed because they will rust, damaging the paper. The facility where archival records are stored usually have temperature and humidity controls.
Reference and Outreach
All the steps described before this – appraisal, acquisition, arrangement, description, and preservation – are all for the purpose of archives being used in the present and future. In order for researchers to use archives to their fullest potential, they often need reference assistance from archivists. Reference assistance can include how to interpret finding aids, how to properly handle archival material, and if there are archival collections other than the one the researcher is reviewing that would be relevant or helpful.
Why do archivists do all this tedious work?
One main, historical reason for archival work is to enable public accountability of government activities. To ensure an open democracy and government, citizens must have access to the records created by the government. As evidence of government activity, these records have a very specific enduring value and must be preserved. This archival purpose dates back to the French Revolution, which serves as a key event in the history of archives.
Another reason for archival work is a commitment to preserving different aspects of history. Institutional archives collect records that document the activities of their parent organization, such as businesses and universities. These records have enduring value because they provide necessary institutional history for the organization itself. Other archives collect records based on specific themes or academic disciplines, such as anthropology, African American history, or Asian art.
To sum up what an archivist does and why
Basically, an archivist ensures physical and intellectual control of records that have enduring value. Archivists do this for many reasons – such as to facilitate public accountability of government, to ensure the history of cultural heritage is not forgotten, or to maintain institutional history. Archives do not simply store records — archives are meant to be used! Archivists perform all those responsibilities in order for people to access and use records.
My very first LIS conference was last year’s SAA meeting, which took place in DC. It was before I started library school, so I really had no idea what to expect. I was too shy to reach out and meet new people since it was my first conference — and I felt like I was an imposter who had no idea what archives were really about. Additionally, since I didn’t have to travel for it, I felt more comfortable going home after a day of sessions instead of hanging out and meeting new people.
This year’s SAA conference was a lot different for me. First, I felt like I was reaching the end of a marathon — from March-June, I attended 5 (!) conferences. All of those conferences really helped me become more comfortable with the idea of “networking” — or meeting people, which is how I prefer to think of it. The best way to feel comfortable about meeting and talking with strangers is to do a lot of it. And everyone I’ve met at LIS conferences is overwhelmingly friendly and approachable. I also think attending conferences in cities outside of your home, while more expensive, really forces you to socialize more.
After finishing three semesters of library school, I no longer felt that I had no idea what people were talking about in the archives world. I certainly didn’t understand everything, but I didn’t feel like an impostor anymore. Also, I really like the size of SAA’s conference — it’s definitely not as overwhelming as ALA. I feel like at any given time, you see familiar faces along with unfamiliar ones.
Overall, my best experience at SAA was having a graduate poster. It was a great opportunity for me to meet new people and discuss my research interests in archives. Mostly, I just really enjoyed the format of individual interactions and discussions. I highly recommend doing a poster session!
It’s interesting to look back over the past year and see how far I’ve grown. Honestly, I think that conferences and connecting online with the library/archives Twitterverse and blogworld have been far more valuable experiences for me than classes — at least in terms of personal development and growth. Does anyone else feel the same?
(If you’re interested in reading conference session reviews, check out this collaborative wrap-up post over at Hack Library School.)